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Atomization and Sprays
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ISSN Imprimer: 1044-5110
ISSN En ligne: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2019029661
pages 59-78

X-RAY PHASE CONTRAST IMAGING OF CAVITATION AND DISCHARGED LIQUID JET IN NOZZLES WITH VARIOUS SIZES

Rubby Prasetya
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Japan
Akira Sou
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, Japan
Seoksu Moon
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University
Raditya Hendra Pratama
Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University, 5-1-1, Fukaeminami, Higashinada, Kobe 658-0022, Japan; Research Institute for Energy Conservation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Yoshitaka Wada
Powertrain Engineering Analysis Group, Mazda Motor Corporation, Japan
Hideaki Yokohata
Powertrain Engineering Analysis Group, Mazda Motor Corporation, Japan

RÉSUMÉ

Visualization of internal cavitation flow in the nozzle is sometimes carried out with enlarged, trans-parent nozzles, in order to capture the images of cavitation bubbles with relatively high spatial resolution. However, it is unclear whether knowledge obtained from large-scale nozzles can be applied to nozzles with much smaller sizes, which provides a great impetus to study the nozzle size effects on in-nozzle cavitation and discharged liquid jet characteristics. In this study, visualization of cavitation in nozzles with various sizes was conducted to clarify the effects of nozzle size on cavitation. The visualization was carried out using x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) to clearly observe individual cavitation bubbles. Furthermore, to investigate the effects of cavitation in nozzles with various sizes on the wavy interface structure of a discharged liquid jet, the discharged liquid jets were also visualized. Rectangular plain-orifice nozzles with a length-to-width ratio of 4 were used in the study. The width of the nozzles varies from 2.0, 1.0, and 0.50, to 0.25 mm. As a result of the study, we clarified the fact that a cavitation cloud is made of a number of deformed bubbles, while a sheet cavitation consists of a single cavitation film. In-nozzle cavitation bubbles follow the similarity law; that is, the diameter of incipient cavitation bubbles changes along with the change in nozzle size. Additionally, the wavy structure of the discharged liquid jet is finer at the super cavitation regime, although the finer structure is suppressed as nozzle size decreases, due to the relatively stronger surface tension force acting on the interface of the wavy liquid jet discharged from smaller nozzles.

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