Begell House Inc.
Journal of Porous Media
JPM
1091-028X
22
6
2019
INVESTIGATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL VISCOSITY CHANGE UNDER AN APPLIED ELECTRICAL FIELD IN POROUS MEDIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
631-646
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019029058
Maria
Peraki
Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont,
USA
Ehsan
Ghazanfari
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA
George F.
Pinder
Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont,
USA
electrical gradient
two-phase flow
viscosity
mobility
oil
The electrically enhanced oil recovery (EEOR) method takes advantage of electrokinetic phenomena. One of the hypothesized underlying mechanisms involved in this method is the reduction of crude oil viscosity due to an applied
electrical field and therefore an increase in the oil mobility. This study investigates the feasibility of oil viscosity change due to an applied electrical field and its importance in transport phenomena during oil recovery using experimental and numerical tools. The physical experiment simulated the application of an applied electrical field to a synthetic formation in a small-scale test cell. The results of the physical experiment indicated a slight reduction in the oil viscosity at the center region of the test cell. To examine the effect of the change in oil viscosity on transport, a numerical experiment was performed. The data from this experiment and from other experimental and field applications available in the
literature were used to linearly interpolate the value of the oil viscosity with time. The results of the numerical experiments indicated that incorporating the changes in the oil viscosity leads to a considerable increase in the cumulative oil production, whose magnitude depends on the magnitude of viscosity change due to the electrical field application.
THE PULSE DESCRIPTORS IN SENSITIVITY STUDIES OF HYBRID SORPTION COLUMN TRANSPORT MODELS
647-662
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019028916
Monika
Okońska
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental
Planning, Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznan, Poland
Mariusz
Kaczmarek
Kazimierz Wielki University, Institute of Mechanics and Applied Computer Science,
Kopernika 1, 85-074 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Marek
Marciniak
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental
Planning, Krygowskiego 10, 61-680 Poznan, Poland
column test
descriptors
sensitivity analysis
sorption models
model selection
In column tests, the description of pollutant migration by means of single sorption models sometimes proves insufficient. If equilibrium and nonequilibrium sorption occur concurrently during the pollutant migration in the column, then hybrid (two-site) models are more effective in terms of the transport description. This article presents sensitivity analysis results for six hybrid sorption models. The authors identified a dependence of the reactive tracer breakthrough curve shape on sorption parameter values. The applied set of pulse descriptors allowed for a quantitative comparison of the influence of the sorption parameter values on the breakthrough curve shape. The results may help to simplify the transport model, facilitate laboratory test result interpretations, and support model calibration. The authors propose an algorithm, based on descriptors, for selecting a hybrid sorption model appropriate for results of column tests. This article is a continuation of the study which presented sensitivity analysis results of single sorption models.
EFFECTS OF POLYMER DISPERSION AND ADSORPTION ON IMMISCIBLE AND MISCIBLE VISCOUS INSTABILITIES DURING CHEMICAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
663-679
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019028849
R.
Vishnudas
Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology
Madras, Chennai-600036, India
Abhijit
Chaudhuri
Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology
Madras, Chennai-600036, India
miscible
immiscible viscous fingering
EOR
polymer flooding
adsorption
dispersivity
During polymer flooding in oil reservoir, miscible and immiscible viscous fingering can occur at the front and backside of the polymer bank, respectively. Polymer dispersion and adsorption control the polymer concentration profile and water viscosity. So transport parameters should affect immiscible viscous instability between the oil and polymer banks. Earlier the effects of transport parameters on the miscible viscous instability and the effects of capillarity and relative permeability on immiscible viscous instability were studied. In this paper the effects of dispersivity and nonlinear adsorption on the growth of immiscible viscous fingers are discussed. We modeled equilibrium adsorption using a Langmuir isotherm. The pattern and growth of miscible and immiscible viscous fingers for different transport parameters were compared using the root mean square of unstable interfaces. We have found that like miscible viscous instability, the immiscible fingering is also less for higher longitudinal dispersivity. For larger transverse dispersivity, miscible viscous fingering is almost suppressed but immiscible fingers of large wavelength still grow. Adsorption does not affect miscible viscous instability behind the polymer bank, but it reduces the width of polymer bank. When the adsorption is very high, the miscible viscous fingers can puncture the polymer bank and reach the oil bank. In the case of strong nonlinear adsorption (large value of B in the Langmuir isotherm), the saturation profile is very sharp and
immiscible viscous fingers grow fast. For linear adsorption or small B, the saturation front is diffused and immiscible
viscous instability is greatly suppressed. So the linear adsorption model underpredicts the growth of the immiscible
viscous finger.
BRINKMAN FLOW THROUGH A POROUS CYLINDER EMBEDDED IN ANOTHER UNBOUNDED POROUS MEDIUM
681-692
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019029027
Satya
Deo
Department of Mathematics, University of Allahabad, Prayagraj (Allahabad), U.P., 211002,
India
Iftekhar Ahamad
Ansari
Department of Mathematics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India
Brinkman equation; stream function; Modified Bessel functions; permeability
This work concerns the study of steady incompressible viscous fluid flow through a porous cylinder embedded in another infinite porous medium. Brinkman equations for the flow inside and outside porous cylinder in their stream function formulations are used. A closed form exact solution is obtained for the governing equations. Explicit expressions for stream functions, velocity profiles, stresses and pressures are obtained. A new result for drag force experienced by the porous cylinder is investigated. The dependence of the drag coefficient, shear stress, streamlines patterns and velocity profiles for various values of parameters are presented graphically and discussed.
ESTABLISHMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY MODEL AND ORTHOGONAL TEST DESIGN FOR ANALYSIS OF DOMINATING FACTORS IN FRACTURED SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS
693-711
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019029030
Leng
Tian
College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
Cong
Xiao
College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
Guangdong
Wang
Petro China Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083,
China
Ya
Deng
Petro China Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083,
China
Yanchen
Wang
Downhole Service Company of Shengli Oil Field Service Corporation, Dongyin, Shandong,
257091, China
multistage fracturing horizontal well
desorption
stress sensitivity
non-Darcy flow
orthogonal test design
factors
With comprehensive consideration of adsorption, diffusion, stress sensitivity, and non-Darcy flow, this paper established a new productivity model of a multistage fracturing horizontal well for shale gas reservoirs. The numerical solution was obtained with the fully implicit finite difference and Newton-Raphson iterative methods, and the type curves were plotted as well. Based on this new model, it was demonstrated that the flow regimes during the whole production period can be systematically divided into four main stages: bilinear flow, linear flow, pseudo-steady-state interporosity flow, and dominating boundary flow. The effects of stress sensitivity mainly occur at the bilinear flow stage and dominating boundary flow stage. With an increasing stress sensitivity coefficient, the gas rate will decrease apparently. The non-Darcy flow has a negative influence on the shale gas rate, and the effects of non-Darcy flow will become obvious with the increasing gas rate. The smaller the value of Langmuir volume and the bigger the value of Langmuir pressure, the later the interporosity flow occurs between the matrix and microfractures. This proposed
model is also validated by comparing it with numerical simulation and case applications. The orthogonal test design
is employed to identify the dominating factors among the relevant parameters, such as fracture spacing, fracture half
length, fracture numbers, fracture conductivity, and stress sensitivity. It is concluded that fracture length and fracture conductivity are the dominating factors at the early production stage, while the stress sensitivity coefficient is the dominating parameter at the intermediate-late stage. The results can provide some guidance for the optimization of stimulated treatment in shale gas reservoirs.
THERMOPHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NICKEL AND STAINLESS STEEL SINTERED WICKS
713-722
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019029047
Javier
Corrochano
IberEspacio S.A., Avda. Premios Nobel, 53, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
Paula
Prado-Montes
IberEspacio S.A., Avda. Premios Nobel, 53, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
Alejandro
Torres
IberEspacio S.A., Avda. Premios Nobel, 53, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
loop heat pipe
primary wicks
capillary properties
thermal conductivity
mechanical properties
Primary wicks are the key component of loop heat pipes (LHPs), which are highly effective two-phase thermal transport passive devices with well-established applications as thermal control subsystems in spacecraft. The primary wick is a porous material, and the knowledge of its physical characteristics is crucial in the design and manufacture of the LHPs. In this paper, a complete characterization of the nickel and stainless steel wicks manufactured by powder metallurgy is performed. The results reveal that both sintered Ni and stainless steel materials show good machinability, which is attributable to the sufficient mechanical strength achieved during the manufacturing process. Ni wick shows a smaller porous size than stainless steel wick, providing an opportunity to manufacture LHPs with high heat transport capability. For the stainless steel wick, a good compromise between high capillary pressure and high porosity and permeability is achieved. Moreover, the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel wick ensures a low heat leak from the evaporator to the compensation chamber, and hence a high overall LHP conductance. This makes the stainless steel wick excellent for LHPs. Comparison of capillary and mechanical properties of the present porous wicks to others found in the literature indicates that the highest capillary properties are given by the present materials.
CRITICAL INVESTIGATION OF INTERFACE CONDITIONS FOR FLUID PRESSURES, CAPILLARY PRESSURE, AND VELOCITIES AT JUMP INTERFACE IN POROUS MEDIA
723-744
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019028819
Xiaolong
Peng
The State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest
Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610500, P.R. China
Fei
Mo
Chongqing University of Science and Technology
Baosheng
Liang
Chevron North America Exploration and Production, 1400 Smith Street, Houston, Texas
77002, USA; The University of Texas at Austin, USA
Zhimin
Du
State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum
University, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, P.R. China 610500
interface condition
jump interface
two phase
porous media
Jump interface, where porous media or fluid properties experience jump discontinuities, is a common boundary of
two continuous regions. Its joint condition is usually treated by phase pressure and velocity continuities (CPVCM).
However, CPVCM has limitations. We first clarify that conservation laws (mass, momentum, and energy) used in the
CPVCM and actual interface conditions most likely refer to different objects. We also demonstrate that some terms in
the conservation equations of CPVCM, regarded as its theory foundation, have been treat as zero unreasonably. Second,
a new jump interface condition model, the jump pressures and velocities conditions model (JPVCM), is formalized by
using the notions of global pressure [as defined by Antoncev, S,. The Solvability of Boundary Value Problems for
Degenerate Equations of Two-Phase Filtration, Dinamika Splosn. Sredy, vol. 246, pp. 28–53 (1972), and Chavent,
G., A Fully Equivalent Global Pressure Formulation for Three-Phases Compressible Flows, Appl. Anal., vol. 88, no.
10-11, pp. 1527–1541 (2009)]. According to the new model, fluid velocities and pressures are probably discontinuous
at the jump interface. Finally, JPVCM is employed to build the numerical flux across the grid cell interface for reservoir simulation with the individual pressure model. Examples in the paper show that JPVCM gives more accurate results than CPVCM and single-point upstream weighting. Because JPVCM does not need to reform the original individual pressure equations, it is suitable for more types of fluid flow in porous media than the global pressure model.
SIMILARITY SOLUTIONS OF THE UNSTEADY BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW PAST A PERMEABLE WEDGE EMBEDDED IN A POROUS MEDIUM
745-759
10.1615/JPorMedia.2019029063
Ramesh B.
Kudenatti
Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Central College Campus, Bangalore-560001, India
Shilpa
P.
Department of Mathematics, Bangalore University, Central College Campus,
Bangalore–560001, India
unsteady boundary-layer
pressure gradient
porous
mass transfer
Keller-box method
asymptotics
We investigate the unsteady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over
a constant and permeable wedge inserted into a porous medium. The outer freestream velocity is assumed to be proportional to a power of distance along the wedge surface, i.e., xm, where x is the distance from the leading edge and m is a constant. The model is described by the unsteady Falkner-Skan equation and solved analytically when the unsteady parameter equals 2 and otherwise numerically using the Keller-box method, for the wall shear stresses and mean velocity profiles. The system is also solved asymptotically far away from the wedge surface to compliment the numerical
results, and asymptotic solutions produce oscillatory-type velocity profiles. Results show that the flow region is divided into near- and far-field regions. The effects of suction are to reduce the horizontal flow velocity near the viscous region, whereas, for the case of injection, these can extend far away from the wedge surface. In addition, our results show that boundary layer thickness decreases for an accelerated flow; whereas, there is a boundary layer separation for strong decelerated flow. The dynamics behind these results are discussed.