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Telecommunications and Radio Engineering
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Telecommunications and Radio Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/TelecomRadEng.v78.i14.20
pages 1233-1247

IMAGING BY AEROSPACE RADAR SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE APERTURE SYNTHESIS

O. A. Daki
State University of Infrastructure and Technologies, 19 Ivana Ohiienka St, Kyiv, 02000, Ukraine
Nguen Van Huu
National Aerospace University (Kharkiv Aviation Institute), 17 Chkalov St., Kharkiv, 61070, Ukraine
V. V. Pavlikov
National Aerospace University "Kharkiv Aviation Institute", 17, Chkalova St., Kharkiv 61070, Ukraine
A. D. Sobkolov
National Aerospace University (Kharkiv Aviation Institute), 17 Chkalov St., Kharkiv, 61070, Ukraine
O. M. Tymoschuk
State University of Infrastructure and Technologies, 19 Ivana Ohiienka St, Kyiv, 02000, Ukraine

ABSTRACT

Modern systems of remote sensing are not able to monitor the viewing area, which lies in the approximate range from -15° to +15° from the nadir. This is because for this particular zone it is difficult to achieve a high spatial resolution in this range and, respectively, the spatial resolution of the formed image is significantly reduced in comparison with the image constructed in the angle range of 15°÷50° to the right and left of the nadir. Therefore, the paper proposes a new approach for solving the problem of high-precision imaging from aerospace carriers by using the wideband stochastic probing radio signals, processing the spatiotemporal signals scattered by the underlying surface and applying a method that is similar to the aperture synthesis method used in the radio astronomy problems.
The quasioptimal processing of spatiotemporal stochastic wideband signals, the block diagram of the high-precision imaging radio system within the field of view from -15° to +15° from the nadir, which is usually not visible from aerospace carriers.
The analytical models of probing wideband stochastic signals are recorded and their statistical characteristics are investigated. The geometry of the problem of the radio imaging with a spatially distributed antenna system is considered. Information about the signals and the geometry of the problem allowed us to carry out the expressions for the observations, which are supposed to be recorded at each antenna output of the antenna system. The statistical characteristics of the observations are investigated. The maximum likelihood method for solving the problem of synthesizing an algorithm for optimal spatiotemporal signal processing is justified. This algorithm contains the operations of cross-correlation processing of observations that were recorded at the outputs of each antenna in the antenna system. According to the synthesized algorithm, a block diagram of the radio system has been developed and simulation modeling of the image generation has been carried out.
The algorithm for the high-resolution radio images formation for the viewing area that traditionally cannot viewed from an aircraft.
The radio engineering system of active aperture synthesis proposed and studied in the work, can be used in addition to the existing side-looking airborne radar systems or synthetic-aperture radar systems for high-resolution radio imaging within the field of view from -15° to +15° from the nadir. This will allow to operatively obtain radio images within the range of -50° to +50° from the nadir.

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