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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.241 5-Year IF: 1.349 SJR: 0.519 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v28.i3.40
pages 231-234

2Am-DNT Induces Cell Death and Apoptosis in Human Cells

Hirendranath Banerjee
Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Elizabeth City State University, University of North Carolina, USA
Z. Hawkins
Departments of Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Science, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC 27909, USA
M. Yakubu
Departments of Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Science, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC 27909, USA
D. Smoot
Departments of Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Science, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC 27909, USA
M. Asktorab
Department of Medicine, Howard University Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20059, USA
S. K. Dutta
Department of Medicine, Howard University Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20059, USA

ABSTRACT

During microbial or mammalian cell metabolism, TNT (2,4,6-tinitrotoluene) is reduced to 2Am-DNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 4Am-DNT, or 2,4-diamino-NT (2,4-diaminonitrotoluelne) depending on the specific organism. The metabolite 2Am-DNT is the most common of the TBT biotransformation pathways in bacterial and fungal species studied to date. in the mammalian liver cells, TNT is metabolized to 2Am-DNT by the P450 enzyme system. Apoptosis is rapidly emerging as a relevant endpoint for detecting low-dose toxin exposure. We report in this study that 2Am-DNT treatment of mammalian cells causes cell death by apoptosis. Cell death was assayed by the Trypan Blue method. Apoptotic changes, such as DNA break down, were detected in treated cells by the production of a dark-brown DAB (diaminobenzidine) signal using the Fragel™ Klenow DNA fragment detection system, by immunohistochemical techniques with fluorescence microscopy, and by using a microplate reader for a single-stranded DNA binding assay. All of these results showed that 2am-DNT is toxic to mammalian cells and induces apoptosis.


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