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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.15 5-Year IF: 1.4

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2016015463
pages 91-98

Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization

Steen J. Madsen
Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy., Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV 89154
Jonathan Gonzales
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612
Genesis Zamora
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612
Kristian Berg
Oslo University Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Dept. of Radiation Biology, Oslo, 0379, Norway
Rohit Kumar Nair
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612
Henry Hirschberg
Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Rd. E, Irvine, CA 92612

ABSTRACT

Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies.