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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.241 5-Year IF: 1.349 SJR: 0.356 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017020185
pages 159-169

Insulin Combined with Glucose Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in Aluminum Chloride−Induced Dementia in Rats

Madhavan Nampoothiri
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104
Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal–576104, Karnataka, India; Discovery Biology, Suven Life Sciences Ltd., Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Nampurath Gopalan Kutty
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104
Nandakumar Krishnadas
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104
Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic intervention using drugs against Alzheimer disease is curative clinically. At present, there are no reports on the curative role of insulin in chronic models of dementia. We evaluated the curative role of insulin and its combination with glucose in dementia. We also investigated the impact of treatments on blood glucose to correlate with cognitive deficit. Further, we analyzed the interaction of treatments with the cholinergic system and oxidative stress in memory centers (i.e., hippocampus and frontal cortex). The antidementia activity of insulin was assessed against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced dementia in rats. Behavioral parameters (Morris water maze test) along with biochemical parameters (Hippocampus and frontal cortex) such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase, and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed to correlate cognitive function with cholinergic transmission and oxidative stress. Rats administered insulin and glucose showed improved cognitive function in the Morris water maze test. The combination corrected the diminished level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and GSH in the hippocampus and frontal cortex.Combined administration of insulin and glucose to aluminum-treated rats did not inhibit the aluminum action on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. No significant changes were observed in blood glucose levels between the treatment groups.


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