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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.15 5-Year IF: 1.4 SJR: 0.519 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2014010130
pages 45-57

The Risk Factors of Head and Neck Cancer and Their General Patterns in Australia: A Descriptive Review and Update

Jagtar Singh
School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Ramya Ramamoorthi
Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Siddhartha Baxi
Genesis Health Care Bunbury, Bunbury, Western Australia, Australia
Rama` Jayaraj
School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Mahiban Thomas
Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive review of risk factors of head and neck cancer (HNC), with particular interest in their general patterns in Australia. All these risk factors are deeply perplexing, with socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic variables. We reviewed articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar by using keywords such as risk factors, alcohol, tobacco, human papilloma virus (HPV), environmental risk factors, and other risk factors. We selected relevant articles after they completely fit into the inclusion criteria for this review. Previous reports highlight that smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and HPV infection are the major risk factors for HNC. Geographical variations in incidence rates are indicative of differences in the prevalence of risk factors among countries. HNC could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of established risk factors.


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