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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.15 5-Year IF: 1.4 SJR: 0.519 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v20.i2.10
12 pages

Oxidative Mechanisms in the Toxicity of Chromium and Cadmium Ions

Sidney J. Stohs
Departments of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178
Debasis Bagchi
Departments of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178
Ezdihar Hassoun
College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390
Manashi Bagchi
Departments of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178

ABSTRACT

Chromium and cadmium are widely used industrial chemicals. The toxicities associated with both metal ions are well known. However, less information is available concerning the mechanisms of toxicity. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that both cations induce an oxidative stress that results in oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules. However, different mechanisms are involved in the production of oxidative stress by chromium and cadmium. Chromium undergoes redox cycling, while cadmium depletes glutathione and protein-bound sulfhydryl groups, resulting in enhanced production of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide ion, hydroxyl radicals, and hydrogen peroxide. These reactive oxygen species result in increased lipid peroxidation, enhanced excretion of urinary lipid metabolites, modulation of intracellular oxidized states, DNA damage, membrane damage, altered gene expression, and apoptosis. Enhanced production of nuclear factor-кВ and activation of protein kinase С occur. Furthermore, the p53 tumor suppressor gene is involved in the cascade of events associated with the toxicities of these cations. In summary, the results clearly indicate that although different mechanisms lead to the production of reactive oxygen species by chromium and cadmium, similar subsequent mechanisms and types of oxidative tissue damage are involved in the overall toxicities.