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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.15 5-Year IF: 1.4 SJR: 0.519 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2018017186
pages 63-80

Combined Administration of Monosodium Glutamate and High Sucrose Diet Accelerates the Induction of Type 2 Diabetes, Vascular Dysfunction, and Memory Impairment in Rats

Kaja Saikrishna
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Ringu Kumari
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Kantamaneni Chaitanya
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Subhankar Biswas
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Pawan G. Nayak
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Jayesh Mudgal
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Anoop Kishore
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India
Krishnadas Nandakumar
Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576104, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to develop an experimental animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and high sucrose diet (HSD). Young male Wistar rats (20–30 g) were injected with MSG (2 or 4 mg/g, i.p. for 4 days). These rats were also fed an HSD, while the control group was fed a starch diet (SFD) for 150 days. Parameters assessed periodically were body weight, feed intake, blood glucose level, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, skeletal muscle glucose uptake, cognitive function tests, and microvascular changes using isolated rat aorta. Histological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney tissue were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas brain tissue was assessed using cresyl violet stain. Feeding MSG in combination with HSD in rats significantly increased body weight, and produced hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Animals developed frank diabetic complications, which included insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, hypertension, vascular dysfunction, nephropathy, and dementia. Histological studies revealed neuronal loss with necrotic bodies in the brain, reduction in glomerular count in kidney, and severe hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the islets of Langerhans. These results indicate the successful induction of type-2 diabetes along with several diabetic complications by combining MSG with HSD.


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