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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.15 5-Year IF: 1.4 SJR: 0.519 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v25.i1-2.180
pages 281-292

Photoimmunotherapy for Cancer Treatment

Wei R. Chen
Department of Physics and Engineering, University of Central Oklahoma, 100 North University Drive, Edmond, OK 73034
Zheng Huang
HealthOne Alliance, 899 Logan Street, Suite 203, Denver, CO 80203
Mladen Korbelik
British Columbia Cancer Agency, British Columbia Cancer Research Centre, 601 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver BC, V5Z 1L3 Canada
Robert E. Nordquist
Wound Healing of Oklahoma, Inc., 3945 North Walnut Street, Oklahoma, City, OK 73015
Hong Liu
Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019

ABSTRACT

Phototherapy, with its effective dose control and light delivery, has become a promising modality for treating malignant and nonmalignant diseases. Photochemical interaction, specifically photodynamic therapy (PDT), and photothermal interaction have been the primary mechanisms for direct cell destruction in the treatment of cancers. Preclinical studies demonstrate that, in addition to direct local cytotoxicity, PDT can also induce systemic immune responses, which may enhance therapeutic effects on primary tumors and on metastases at distant sites. Selective photothermal therapy, using an in situ application of light-absorbing dye, has also proven to be an effective method for local treatment of tumors. When combined with immunotherapy, the effects of phototherapy can be amplified, potentially making the photoimmunotherapy a systemic treatment modality. This photother-apy-immunotherapy combination, particularly in conjunction with immunoadju-vant, has been used in preclinical studies. The efficacy and long-term effects of such a combination are summarized and the recent experimental results are presented. A new immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC), has been used to enhance photochemical and photothermal therapies. The PDT-GC combination in the treatment of mammary tumors and lung tumors in mice provided significant improvement in the long-term survival of tumor-bearing animals. The use of GC in dye-assisted laser photothermal therapy also provided long-term curative effects and antitumor immune responses in the treatment of metastatic tumors in rats. The immune responses induced by phototherapy and enhanced by immunotherapy could become important mechanism in the control of metastatic tumors.