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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

Impact factor: 1.107

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvPathToxOncol.v24.i1.30
pages 19-32

Alterations in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Constituents, Oxidant/Antioxidant Status, and Lung Histology Following Intratracheal Instillation of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter

Anupam Pradhan
Pulmonary Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India
Mohd Waseem
Pulmonary Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India
Shashi Dogra
Pulmonary Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India
Ashok Kumar Khanna
Pulmonary Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India
Jawahir Lal Kaw
Pulmonary Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India

ABSTRACT

Urban suspended particulate pollutants differ with place of occurrence, meteorological conditions, physicochemical compositions, and the response of the bronchopulmonary apparatus. Lung injury following intratracheal instillation of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) collected in an urban setting in India was investigated in rats. The animals were killed 15 days after exposure to 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg of RSPM. We examined the changes in lung histology, enzymatic activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and the oxidant/ antioxidant status in lung homogenates.The alterations in these parameters were compared with those in rats instilled with quartz particulates, which were used as positive controls. Exposure to RSPM resulted in an increase in the relative weight of lungs and inflammatory changes evidenced by an increase in the total cellularity of the lungs, predominantly polymorphonuclear cells, demonstrable both in the lungs sections and in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the exposed animals. An increase in the protein content and in the lactate dehydrogenase activity in the BAL was found in the RSPM-exposed rats. A marked increase in the output of lipid peroxides and a dose-dependent increase in the formation of reactive nitrogen species (NO) in lung homogenates and BAL, respectively, was found in the RSPM-exposed rats. A significant decrease in the enzymatic lung antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, and catalase was observed. However, the alterations in the levels of glutathione in the lungs of the RSPM-exposed animals were not significant. The inflammatory reaction, oxidative changes, and enzyme release, were more marked in quartz-exposed animals in comparison to the RSPM-exposed rats.