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International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.142 SNIP: 0.16 CiteScore™: 0.29

ISSN Print: 2150-766X
ISSN Online: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.v6.i2.80
pages 255-268

DECOMPOSITION AND PERFORMANCEOFNEW HIGH NITROGEN PROPELLANTS AND EXPLOSIVES

Bryce C. Tappan
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Steven F. Son
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
Arif N. Ali
Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 Materials Dynamics Group Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM USA 87545
David E. Chavez
Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 Materials Dynamics Group Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM USA 87545
Michael A. Hiskey
Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 Materials Dynamics Group Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM USA 87545

ABSTRACT

As of late, molecules with high nitrogen content have received increased attention, due in large part to their novel energetic materials properties. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we continue to pursue the development and characterization of new high-nitrogen materials for applications in a wide variety of fields. In this work, three molecules, triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT), 3,6-bis-nitroguanyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine, and its corresponding bis-triaminoguanidinium salt, are studied. All three molecules are high-nitrogen compounds with little or no oxygen; however, they retain energetic material properties as a result of their high heats of formation. Due to these features, the decomposition of this class of compounds has limited or no secondary oxidation reactions of carbon and hydrogen. Other materials discussed for comparison include 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-1,2,4,5-tetrazine)-mixed N-oxides (DAATO3.5) and 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz), and the nitramine octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). The fact that many of these molecules approach 80% nitrogen content makes them potentially useful as gas generants or energetic materials with low flame temperatures, while simultaneously increasing the impulse of gun or rocket propellants.
The burning rate, flash pyrolysis (T-jump/FTIR spectroscopy), explosive sensitivity, and performance properties were determined. Some examples of interesting behaviors include TAGzT exhibiting one of the fastest low pressure burning rates yet measured for an organic compound, and 3,6-bis-nitroguanyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine having one of the lowest pressure exponents yet measured for a pure organic compound.