Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.28 SNIP: 0.421 CiteScore™: 0.9

ISSN Print: 2150-766X
ISSN Online: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.2020027907
pages 95-112

LESSONS LEARNED FROM THERMAL IGNITION TESTING WITH AMMONIUM DINITRAMIDE-BASED MONOPROPELLANTS

Michele Negri
DLR, German Aerospace Center, Institute of Space Propulsion, Lampoldshausen, Langer Grund, 74239 Hardthausen, Germany
Marius Wilhelm
DLR, German Aerospace Center, Institute of Space Propulsion, Lampoldshausen, Langer Grund, 74239 Hardthausen, Germany
Christian Hendrich
DLR, German Aerospace Center, Institute of Space Propulsion, Lampoldshausen, Langer Grund, 74239 Hardthausen, Germany

ABSTRACT

Liquid monopropellants based on ammonium dinitramide (ADN) are attractive hydrazine replacements, offering higher specific impulse and density, and easier and safer handling. The present work presents some of the main lessons learned during the development of thermal igniter systems for this class of green propellants. The propellants tested (LMP-103S and FLP-106) presented specific issues connected to their nature: they are solutions of a solid oxidizer (ADN) in liquid fuel(s) and water. The addition of water strongly reduces the chance of an explosive decomposition of ADN, thus increasing the safety of the propellants, but on the other hand makes ignition more difficult. Solid ADN is a sensitive explosive, and if solid ADN is formed during hot firing testing, a detonation may occur. The motivation of the work, as well as a description of the experimental setups, is given in the first part of the article. The central part is focused on the issues encountered during the test activities. The final part of the work contains indications for improving laser ignition, thermal ignition with a torch igniter, and procedures for increasing the safety of hot firing testing with ADN-based propellants.

REFERENCES

  1. Anflo, K. and Crowe, B., (2011) In-Space Demonstration of High Performance Green Propulsion and Its Impact on Small Satellites, 25th Conf. on Small Satellites, Logan, UT.

  2. Clark, J.D. and Asimov, I., (2018) Ignition!: An Informal History of Liquid Rocket Propellants, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. EURENCO, (2013) ADNSafety Data Sheet, Paris, France, p. 6.

  3. Friedhoff, P., Anflo, K., Thormahlen, P., and Persson, M., (2018) Growing Constellation of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) based High Performance Green Propulsion (HPGP) Systems, 54th AIAA/SAE/ASEE JointPropuls. Conf., Cincinnati, OH. DOI: 10.2514/6.2018-4754.

  4. Friedhoff, P., Hawkins, A., Carrico, J., Dyer, J., and Anflo, K., (2017) On-Orbit Operation and Performance of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) based High Performance Green Propulsion (HPGP) Systems, 53rd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propuls. Conf., Atlanta, GA. DOI: 10.2514/6.2017-4673.

  5. Gohardani, A.S., Stanojev, J., Demaire, A., Anflo, K., Persson, M., Wingborg, N., and Nilsson, C., (2014) Green Space Propulsion: Opportunities and Prospects, Prog. Aerospace Sci., 71, pp. 128-149. DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2014.08.001.

  6. Hendrich, C., Muller, P., Wilhelm, M., and HaBler, M., (2018) Quantitative Determination of Segregation Effects for ADN-Based Liquid Monopropellants due to Internal Flow Phenomena, Space Propulsion Conf. 2018, Seville, Spain, p. 6.

  7. Larsson, A. and Wingborg, N., (2011) Green Propellants based on Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN), in J. Hall, Ed., Advances in Spacecraft Technologies, InTech. DOI: 10.5772/13640.

  8. Negri, M., Hendrich, C., Wilhelm, M., Freudenmann, D., Ciezki, H.K., Gediminas, L., and Adelow, L., (2016) Thermal Ignition of ADN-Based Propellants, Space Propulsion Conference 2016, Rome, Italy, p. 12.

  9. Negri, M., Wilhelm, M., Hendrich, C., Wingborg, N., Gediminas, L., and Adelow, L., (2017) Technology Development for ADN-Based Green Monopropellant Thrusters: An Overview of the Rheform Project, 7th EUCASS, Milan, Italy. DOI: 10.13009/eucass2017-319.

  10. Negri, M., Wilhelm, M., Hendrich, C., Wingborg,N., Gediminas, L., Adelow, L., Maleix, C., Chabernaud, P., Brahmi, R., Beauchet, R., and Batonneau, Y., (2018a) New Technologies for Ammonium Dinitramide based Monopropellant Thrusters - The Project RHEFORM. Acta Astronautica, 143, pp. 105-117. DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2017.11.016.

  11. Negri, M., Wilhelm, M., and Hendrich, C., (2018b) Thermal Ignition of ADN-Based Propellants, Space Propuls. Conf. 2018, Seville, Spain.

  12. Negri, M., Wilhelm, M., and Ciezki, H.K., (2019) Thermal Ignition of ADN-Based Propellants, Propell. Explos. Pyrotech., 44(9), pp. 1096-1106. DOI: 10.1002/prep.201900154.

  13. Ostmark, H., Bemm, U., Langlet, A., Sanden, R., and Wingborg, N., (2000) The Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN): Part 1, Basic Properties and Spectroscopic Data, J. Energetic Mater., 18(2-3), pp. 123-138. DOI: 10.1080/07370650008216116.

  14. Yang, R., Thakre, P., and Yang, V., (2005) Thermal Decomposition and Combustion of Ammonium Dinitramide (Review), Combust. Explos. Shock Waves, 41(6), pp. 657-679. DOI: 10.1007/s10573-005-0079-y.


Articles with similar content:

HYPERGOLIC IONIC LIQUID FUELS AND OXIDIZERS
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.13, 2014, issue 3
Haixiang Gao, Qinghua Zhang, Venugopal Thottempudi, Songqing Li, Ling He, John P. Maciejewski, Thao T. Vo, Jean'ne M. Shreeve
ACTIVATED METAL POWDERS AS POTENTIAL ENERGETIC MATERIALS
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.8, 2009, issue 4
Alon Gany, Valery Rosenband
COMBUSTION FEATURES OF NITRATE ESTER PLASTICIZED POLYETHER SOLID PROPELLANTS WITH ADN AND FOX-12 PARTICLES
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.19, 2020, issue 1
Hui Xiang Xu, Wei Qiang Pang, Xue Zhong Fan, Li Qun Xiao, Huan Li, Ke Wang, Jun Qiang Li
IGNITER COMPOSITIONS FOR LOVA AND DOUBLE-BASE PROPELLANTS CONTAINING KDN
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.18, 2019, issue 2
E. Roth, Stefan Kelzenberg, Sebastian Knapp, Volker Weiser, A. Koleczko
AMMONIUM DINITRAMIDE/GLYCIDYL AZIDE POLYMER (ADN/GAP) COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS WITH AND WITHOUT METALLIC FUELS
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol.16, 2017, issue 1
Volker Gettwert, Luigi T. DeLuca, Volker Weiser, Andrea Franzin, Manfred A. Bohn