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Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics
SJR: 0.309 SNIP: 0.041 CiteScore™: 0.18

ISSN Print: 2151-8017
ISSN Online: 2151-8025

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 7, 2016

Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics

DOI: 10.1615/ForumImmunDisTher.2016015242
pages 91-99

Experimental Approaches for Eliminating Latent HIV

Matthew D. Marsden
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
Jerome A. Zack
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA

ABSTRACT

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV viral loads to undetectable levels and prevent disease progression. However, HIV persists in rare cellular reservoirs within ART-treated patients and rapidly reemerges if ART is stopped. Latently infected CD4+ T cells represent a major reservoir of HIV that persists during ART. Therefore, a cure for HIV must include methods that either permanently inactivate or eliminate latent virus. Experimental methods under investigation for eliminating latently infected cells include transplantation/gene therapy approaches intended to deplete the infected cells and replace them with HIV-resistant ones, and DNA editing strategies that are capable of damaging or excising non-expressing HIV proviruses. Alternatively, "activation-elimination", also known as "shock and kill", approaches aim to induce expression of latent virus, allowing the virus to be eliminated by viral cytopathic effects, immune effector mechanisms, or additional cells/antibodies that specifically target and kill cells expressing HIV proteins. Here, we describe these experimental approaches for eliminating latent HIV along with other recent advances in HIV cure research.


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