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Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics

ISSN Print: 2151-8017
ISSN Online: 2151-8025

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 7, 2016

Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics

DOI: 10.1615/ForumImmunDisTher.2015014188
pages 7-17

Reinvigorating Exhausted T Cells by Blockade of the PD-1 Pathway

Junghwa Lee
Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322
Eunseon Ahn
Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322
Haydn T Kissick
Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322
Rafi Ahmed
Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322

ABSTRACT

T-cell exhaustion due to persistent antigen stimulation is a key feature of chronic viral infections and cancer. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a major regulator of T-cell exhaustion, and blocking the PD-1 pathway restores T-cell function and improves pathogen control and tumor eradication. Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1 inhibitory receptor pathway has demonstrated significant antitumor activity. Recently, antibodies blocking PD-1 have been approved for use in cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the role of the PD-1 pathway in chronic infection and cancer and the therapeutic potential of PD-1-directed immunotherapy in patients with chronic infection or cancer.