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Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics
SJR: 0.309 SNIP: 0.041 CiteScore™: 0.18

ISSN Print: 2151-8017
ISSN Online: 2151-8025

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 7, 2016

Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics

DOI: 10.1615/ForumImmunDisTher.v2.i2.70
pages 161-169

Prognostic and Predictive Role of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Within the RAS/ MAP Signaling Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

A. Lugli
Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
P. Minoo
Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
I. Zlobec
Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland


According to the UICC (Union Internationale Contre le Cancer) the essential prognostic factors in colorectal cancer (CRC) include T stage (T), N stage (N), M stage (M), and the information on lymphatic (L) and vascular (V) invasion. Although patients with Stage III disease normally receive postoperative adjuvant therapy, the treatment of Stage II patients is still a matter of controversy. Therefore, several studies have focused in the last several years on novel independent prognostic factors that, in addition to TNM stage, may better stratify CRC patients into prognostic subgroups. Nevertheless, the implementation of biomarkers into daily practice, especially using immunohistochemistry, can be very problematic due to the lack of standardization and reproducibility. The RAS signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CRC and is of growing interest due to KRAS mutational status and its potential predictive value in patients with metastatic CRC treated with anti-EGFR therapy. Consequently, many downstream molecules of the RAS signaling pathway, such as BRAF and PIK3, have been studied. An additional and important protein is the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP). The aim of this review is to investigate on the potential prognostic and predictive role of RKIP in CRC.

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