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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

ISSN Print: 1050-6934
ISSN Online: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v21.i4.80
pages 349-358

Osseointegration of Cobalt-Chrome Alloy Implants

Andreas F. Mavrogenis
First Department of Orthopaedics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, ATTIKON University Hospital, Athens, Greece
Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos
First Department of Orthopaedics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, ATTIKON University Hospital, Athens, Greece
George C. Babis
National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, 2nd Orthopaedic Department, Konstantopouleio Hospital, Nea Ionia, 14233, Athens, Greece

ABSTRACT

Osseointegration or osteointegration refers to a direct bone-to-metal interface without interposition of non-bone tissue. The long-term clinical success of bone implants is critically related to wide bone-to-implant direct contact. However, only poor bone formation or even host bone resorption have been shown where bone is in tight contact with the implant surface. It has been suggested that an appropriate space between implant and host bone may be useful for early peri-implant bone formation. Additionally, osseointegration depends on the topographical and chemical characteristics of the implant surface. Cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) is a metal alloy of cobalt and chromium. Because of its high strength, temperature endurance and wear resistance, it is commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants. In orthopedic implants it is usually composed of cobalt with chromium, molybdenum, and traces of other elements. Co-Cr alloys are especially useful where high stiffness or a highly polished and extremely wear-resistant material is required. This article reviews the Co-Cr alloy orthopedic implants in terms of their properties, porous coating, osseointegration, outcome, and failure.