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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

ISSN Print: 1050-6934
ISSN Online: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v15.i2.60
pages 185-196

Modern Concepts of Treatment and Prevention of Lightning Injuries

Richard Edlich
Legacy Verified Level I Shock Trauma Center Pediatrics and Adults, Legacy Emanual Hospital; and Plastic Surgery, Biomedical Engineering and Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, USA
Heidi-Marie A. Farinholt
Resident in General Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences System, Charlottsville, Virginia; and Resident in Pediatric and Adult Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD, USA
Kathryne L. Winters
Website Manager and Information Specialist, Trauma Specialists, LLP, Legacy Emanuel Hospital, Portland, Oregon, 1917 NE 97th St. Vancouver WA 98665, USA
L. D. Britt
Chairman, Brickhouse Professor of Surgery. Department of General Surgery, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Hofheimer Hall, 825 Fairfax Avenue, Norfolk VA 235001, USA
William B. Long III
Trauma Specialists LLP, Legacy Verified Level I Shock Trauma Center for Pediatrics and Adults, Legacy Emmanuel Hospital Portland, OR, USA

ABSTRACT

Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.