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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.332 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Print: 1050-6934
ISSN Online: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v15.i1.30
pages 15-32

Childhood Obesity: A Simple Equation with Complex Variables

Gregory A. Strock
Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 541 Clinical Drive Room 626, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5111, USA
Erika R. Cottrell
Anthony E. Abang
Ralph M. Buschbacher
Clinical Associate Professor & Interim Chair. Department of Physical Medicine&Rehabilitation, Indiana University School of Medicine,CL 368,541 North Clinical Drive, Indianapolis IN 46202, USA
Tamara S. Hannon


The prevalence of childhood obesity is rising rapidly, as are the associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. This has significant medical and socioeconomic implications. The definition of obesity in adults is based on body mass index (BMI), which has been correlated with morbidity and mortality. Similarly, the definition of childhood obesity is currently based on BMI; however, there are currently no data to relate morbidity and mortality to BMI values in children. The known and potential causes of childhood obesity are many, but they can be categorized as genetic, endocrine, prenatal/early life, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic. These factors influence the basic equation: energy input = energy output. Imbalances in this equation can result in obesity. Here we present a review of recent literature and highlight the etiologies, certain complications, and potential prevention and treatment strategies of childhood obesity.