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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.332 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Print: 1050-6934
ISSN Online: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v14.i3.20
10 pages

Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Part I. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Medical Management

James J. Carswell
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
Steven M. Koenig
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) is a spectrum of disease resulting from changes in the upper airway. It affects a large proportion of the adult population, and in its most severe form, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), patients suffer the adverse effects of sleep disturbance and oxygen desaturation. Daytime somnolence leads to a significantly higher incidence of automobile and work-related accidents, while nocturnal hy-poxia is associated with multiple physiological derangements. Patients with OSAS have higher incidences of hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias. Noninvasive testing is used to confirm the diagnosis, and treatment may be conservative, medical, or surgical. Treatment is designed to improve daytime somnolence and has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality among patients with OSDB.