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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
A Review of Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulations of Prosthetic Heart Valves
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota; Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260
Dysfunctional natural heart valves are replaced with prosthetic heart valves through surgery. However, prosthetic valves are far from ideal. Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) suffer from early calcification and structural damages. Mechanical heart valves (MHVs) are durable but highly thrombogenic and require lifelong anticoagulant treatment. These complications are believed to be related to nonphysiologic flow patterns created by these valves. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are essential in revealing the hemodynamics of these valves. By combining the three-dimensional (3D) flow field obtained from realistic FSI simulations with platelet activation models, nonphysiologic flow patterns can be identified. In this review paper, state-of-the-art methods for simulating FSI in heart valves are reviewed, and the flow physics uncovered by FSI simulations are discussed. Finally, the limitations of current methods are discussed, and future research directions are proposed as follows: (1) incorporation of realistic, image-based ventricle and atrium geometries; (2) comparing MHV and BHV under similar conditions to identify nonphysiologic flow patterns; (3) developing better models to estimate platelet activation potential to be incorporated into the simulations; and (4) identifying the optimum placement of the valves in both mitral and aortic positions.
KEY WORDS: heart valves, mechanical heart valve, tissue heart valve, simulation, fluid-structure interaction
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