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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.332 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Print: 1050-6934
ISSN Online: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.2014010275
pages 13-23

Histological Characterization of Periprosthetic Tissue Responses for Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement

Eual A. Phillips
School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 3401 Market Street, Suite 345, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Gregg R. Klein
Hartzband Center for Hip and Knee Replacement, L.L.C., 10 Forest Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652, USA
Harold E. Cates
Tennessee Orthopaedic Foundation for Education and Research, 9355 Park West Blvd., Suite 100, Knoxville, TN 37923, USA
Steven M. Kurtz
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; Exponent Inc., Philadelphia, PA
Marla Steinbeck
School of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems, Drexel University, 3401 Market Street, Suite 345, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA

ABSTRACT

The histology of periprosthetic tissue from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip devices has been characterized using a variety of methods. The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the suitability of two previously developed aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) scoring systems for periprosthetic hip tissue responses retrieved from MOM total hip replacement (THR) systems revised for loosening. Two ALVAL scoring systems (Campbell and Oxford) were used to perform histological analyses of soft tissues from 17 failed MOM THRs. The predominant reactions for this patient cohort were macrophage infiltration and necrosis, with less than half of the patients (41%) showing a significant lymphocytic response or a high ALVAL reaction (6%). Other morphological changes varied among patients and included hemosiderin accumulation, cartilage formation, and heterotopic ossification. Both scoring systems are useful for correlating macrophage and lymphocyte responses and for comparison with the other; however, given the diversity and variability of the current responses, the Oxford-ALVAL system is more suitable for scoring tissues from MOM THR patients revised for loosening. It is important that standardized methods of scoring MOM tissue responses be used consistently so multiple study results can be compared and a consensus can be generated.