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Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.332 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Print: 1050-6934
ISSN Online: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.v13.i1.40
10 pages

Revolutionary Advances in Adaptive Seating Systems for the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities that Assist Sit-to-Stand Transfers

Richard Edlich
Legacy Verified Level I Shock Trauma Center Pediatrics and Adults, Legacy Emanual Hospital; and Plastic Surgery, Biomedical Engineering and Emergency Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, USA
Cynthia L. Heather
Plastic Surgical Research Program, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia
Michael H. Galumbeck
Galumbeck Consultants, Abingdon, Maryland


The independence of elderly and arthritic patients as well as persons with disabilities is influenced considerably by their ability to stand from a chair. The presence of pain, reduced joint range of motion, stiffness, and muscle weakness often limit the ability to achieve a sit-to-stand position (STS). Realizing the enormous implications of STS performance, physicians, scientists, and industry have joined together to design and manufacture a wide variety of adaptive seating systems that facilitate the rising process. These systems can be divided into three groups: those without mechanical devices, those with mechanical lifts, and those that can lift, tilt in space, recline, or rock. The design of mechanical seating systems without mechanical assists have been influenced by several factors, including chair height, armrest height, and foot position of the occupant. The evaluation of STS performance involves a variety of measurements to include joint angles and moments, speed of time to rise, functional reach and sway, and perception of patient stability (or perceived safety) in rising from a chair. These studies reported that chair seat height, use of armrest, and foot position had a major in. uence on the ability to do a STS movement. The use of higher chair seats resulted in lower moments at the knee and hip level. Investigators reported that lowering the chair height increased the need for momentum generation or repositioning of the feet to lower the needed moments. They found that the use of an armrest reduced the moments needed at the hip without altering the range of motion of the joints. These investigators found that repositioning of the feet influenced the strategy of STS movement, allowing lower mean extension moments at the hip when the foot position changed from anterior to posterior.
Adaptive seating systems with lifts include the spring-booster chair, spring-loaded flap seat, and ejector chair. Innovative investigators reported that increased seat height complemented by the mechanical lift enhanced STS transfers by persons with disabilities. The investigators noted that it was easier to perform STS transfer when using a mechanical lift than when rising unassisted or from a raised seat height. The latest adaptive seating system, the elevator chair, has the unique ability to assist the occupant to the STS