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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
IF: 1.352 5-Year IF: 3.347 SJR: 0.657 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v29.i4.50
pages 347-367

Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Immune Cells: Direct and Indirect Effects on Toll-Like Receptor-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production

Jennifer L. Cross
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada
Pauline Johnson
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Canada

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine phosphorylation is a key means of signal transduction in the immune system, initiating signals from antigen receptors, integrins, and cytokine receptors. Tyrosine phosphorylation is regulated by the balance of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine phosphatase activities. Src family kinases are prevalent in leukocytes and play critical roles in many signaling pathways present in immune cells. For example, they are the key kinases that phosphorylate both immunoreceptor tyrosine—based activation and inhibitory motifs. CD45 is a leukocyte-specific, transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase and an important regulator of Src family kinase activity. Here, we briefly review the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in key signaling pathways in immune cells and then review the accumulating evidence for tyrosine phosphorylation in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling leading to proinflammatory cytokine and type I interferon production. We examine how tyrosine phosphorylation directly impacts TLR signaling pathways and review the involvement of specific tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Finally, we consider how tyrosine phosphorylation signals from other signaling pathways integrate with the TLR signaling pathway to modulate proinflammatory cytokine production.


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