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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
IF: 1.352 5-Year IF: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2016016606
pages 13-56

Antigen Receptor−Intrinsic Non-Self: The Key to Understanding Regulatory Lymphocyte−Mediated Idiotypic Control of Adaptive Immune Responses

Hilmar Lemke
Biochemical Institute of the Medical Faculty of the Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, D-24098 Kiel, Rudolf Hoberstr. 1, Otto Meyerhof-Haus, Germany

ABSTRACT

The clone-specific or idiotypic characters of B as well as T cell antigen receptors (BCRs/TCRs) are associated with (1) the third-complementarity−determining regions (CDR3s) that are created during V(D)J recombination (they scarcely occur in antibody light chains) and (2) BCR idiotopes created by somatic hypermutations (SHMs) during immune responses. Therefore, BCR/TCR idiotypic sites are antigen receptor−intrinsic Non-Self (AgR-iNS) portions that fulfill two tasks: serving as a crucial component of the epitope-binding paratope and serving as target sites for anti-idiotypic BCR/TCR paratopes of other anti-Non-Self clones that are contained in both normal repertoires. The antigen-induced immune response is thus directed not only toward the environmental stimulus but also against the AgR-iNS portions of the directly and further activated clones that form a subsiding idiotypic cascade. These idiotypic chain reactions form a completely integrated idiotypic control circuit among B and T cells which contains all regulatory T and B cells. However, this circuit cannot be viewed as a network of fixed interacting nodes but rather uses the genetic Self as reference. Hence, AgR-iNS offers a mechanistic understanding of regulatory lymphocyte−mediated idiotypic control of adaptive immune responses and reconciles clonal selection and idiotypic network theories hitherto believed to be incompatible.


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