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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
IF: 1.352 5-Year IF: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v18.i5.10
pages 389-418

CD28/B7 Costimulation: A Review

Edward A. Greenfield
Department Of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115. Center For Neurological Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115
Khuong A. Nguyen
Department Of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115
Vijay K. Kuchroo
Center For Neurological Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115

ABSTRACT

The current model of T cell activation requires two signals. The first signal is specific, requiring T cell receptor recognition and binding to MHC/Antigen presented by an antigen-presenting cell. The second signal is nonspecific, resulting from the binding of B7 ligand on the antigen-presenting cell with its receptor, CD28, on the T cell. If both signals are provided, the T cell will proliferate and secrete cytokines. Recently, it has been shown that CTLA4, another receptor for B7 that is upregulated following T cell after activation, can deliver an inhibitory signal, downregulating T cell proliferation. The B7 family of ligands has two family members, B7-1 and B7-2. They both bind to CD28 and CTLA4, but they differ in their binding affinity, structure, and temporal expression. Considerable research has been done on the CD28/B7 costimulatory pathway. Different ways of manipulating this pathway could provide insights into the mechanism and treatment of opposing pathological states. Blocking the CD28/B7 pathway could result in immunosuppression, with implications for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation, and graft vs. host disease. Activating the CD28/B7 pathway could be useful for including the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumors that evade the immune system. Finally, the CD28/B7 pathway could be involved with maintaining immune tolerance, as recent studies suggest the preferential binding of the B7-CTLA4 pathway results in the down-regulation of the responding T cells. Thus, the B7/CD28/CTLA4 pathway has the ability to both positively and negatively regulate immune responses.

KEY WORDS: costimulation, CD28, B7, CTLA4.

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