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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v31.i4.40
pages 341-356

Chemokines in Respiratory Viral Infections: Focus on Their Diagnostic and Therapeutic Potential

Virginia Amanatidou
Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Apostolos Zaravinos
Department of Life Sciences, School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, 1516, Nicosia, Cyprus; College of Medicine, Member of QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Stavros Apostolakis
Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Demetrios A. Spandidos
Department of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece


Chemokines are small chemoattractant cytokines involved in cell trafficking and activation. Despite the general nonspecific nature of chemokine activity in certain instances, specific chemokine expression patterns have been associated with specific disease states. In the field of respiratory viral infection, evidence suggests that response to viral invasion is regulated by a distinct chemokine expression profile involving more CC chemokines than CXC chemokines. Moreover, among the CC chemokines, CCL3 and CCL5 appear to be most commonly implicated in viral respiratory disease. Most data available in this field have been derived from in vitro studies, as well as studies conducted in animal models with limited evidence obtained in settings of actual human disease. In the present review, we focus on the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of virus-induced chemokine activity as reflected by studies conducted in actual disease states, either in animal models or humans. We further discuss whether these data advocate chemokines as a realistic clinical tool for the management of viral infection.

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