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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
IF: 1.352 5-Year IF: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v23.i12.50
25 pages

CD40 and Dendritic Cell Function

Brendan O'Sullivan
Centre for Immunology and Cancer Research, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Queensland 4102, Australia
Ranjeny Thomas
Centre for Immunology and Cancer Research, University of Queensland, Research Extension, Building 1, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia

ABSTRACT

CD40 has emerged as a key signaling pathway for the function of B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DC) in the immune system, and plays a major role in inflammatory pathways of nonhemopoietic cells. CD40 is expressed by monocytes and DC and is up-regulated when DC migrate from the periphery to draining lymph nodes (DLN) in response to microbial challenge. CD154 signaling by MHC-restricted, activated CD4+ T cells induces differentiation of DC, as defined by an increased surface expression of MHC, costimulatory, and adhesion molecules. Thus, CD40 functions in the adaptive immune response as a trigger for the expression of costimulatory molecules for efficient T-cell activation. CD40 ligation of DC also has the capacity to induce high levels of the cytokine IL-12, which polarizes CD4+ T cells toward a T helper 1 (Th1) type, enhances proliferation of CD8+ T cells, and activates NK cells. CD40 may also play an important role in the decision between tolerance and immunity and the generation of regulatory CD4+ T cells that are thought to maintain peripheral self-tolerance in vivo.


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