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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

Impact factor: 3.698

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v31.i5.20
pages 379-446

LPS-induced Cytokine Production in Human Monocytes and Macrophages

Manuela Rossol
Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 21, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Holger Heine
Section Innate Immunity, Research Center Borstel - Leibnitz Center of Medicine and Life Science, Parkallee 22, 23845 Borstel, Germany
Undine Meusch
Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 21, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Dagmar Quandt
Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. 21, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Carina Klein
Institute of Biology II, Immunobiology, University of Leipzig, Talstr. 33, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Matthew J. Sweet
The University of Queensland, Institute for Molecular Bioscience and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Qld, 4072, Australia
Sunna Hauschildt
Institute of Biology II, Immunobiology, University of Leipzig, Talstr. 33, 04103 Leipzig, Germany

ABSTRACT

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is one of the most potent innate immune-activating stimuli known. Here we review the current understanding of LPS effects on human monocyte and macrophage function. We provide an overview of LPS signal transduction with attention given to receptor cooperativity and species differences in LPS responses, as well as the role of tyrosine phosphorylation and lysine acetylation in signalling. We also review LPS-regulated transcription, with emphasis on chromatin remodeling and primary versus secondary transcriptional control mechanisms. Finally, we review the regulation and function of LPS-inducible cytokines produced by human monocytes and macrophages including TNFα, the IL-1 family, IL-6, IL-8, the IL-10 family, the IL-12 family, IL-15 and TGFβ.