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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2017020113
pages 523-537

B Cell–Specific Biomarkers for Optimal Antibody Responses to Influenza Vaccination and Molecular Pathways That Reduce B Cell Function with Aging

Daniela Frasca
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA
Bonnie B. Blomberg
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA

ABSTRACT

This review highlights recent findings on the effects of aging on influenza vaccine responses, with major emphasis on T and B cells, which are significantly impaired by aging. We discuss changes in T cell production and thymic output; T cell subsets; and TCR repertoire, function, and response to latent persistent infection. We also discuss changes in B cell subsets, repertoire, and function, and how function is impaired by increased intrinsic B cell inflammation and reduced signal transduction. This review presents age-related effects on antigen-presenting cells, summarizes recent studies, including our own, aimed at the identification of biomarkers of protective vaccine responses, and provides examples of recent technical advances and insights into human vaccine responses that are helping to define the features associated with successful vaccination and that may enable a more predictive vaccinology in the future.


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