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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

Impact factor: 3.857

ISSN Print: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v30.i5.50
pages 463-487

Inflammasomes and Their Activation

Sonal Khare
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine and Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Nancy Luc
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine and Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Andrea Dorfleutner
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine and Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
Christian Stehlik
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine and Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA

ABSTRACT

The innate immune system relies on the recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors as a first line of defense and to initiate the adaptive immune response. Substantial progress has been made in defining the role of Nod (nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain)-like receptors and AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2) as pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammasomes in macrophages. Inflammasomes are protein platforms essential for the activation of inflammatory caspases and subsequent maturation of their pro-inflammatory cytokine substrates and induction of pyroptosis. This paper summarizes recent developments regarding the function of Nod-like receptors in immunity and disease.