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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
IF: 2.414 5-Year IF: 3.324 SJR: 0.573 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2013007419
pages 435-467

A Pharmacokinetic Overview of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems: An ADME-Oriented Approach

Mehrdad Hamidi
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Science
Amir Azadi
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Pedram Rafiei
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
Hajar Ashrafi
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


With the extensive progress in nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, pharmacokinetic evaluations have gained much attention from researchers as a central part of the study of these systems. Because the fulfillment of any therapeutic goal(s) by a novel drug delivery system requires that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) be considered from the early stages of the system design to the final clinical evaluations, extensive knowledge of the pharmacokinetic aspects related to ADME is a crucial part of research in this field. The main objectives of the nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems from a pharmacokinetic viewpoint are (1) an improved drug-release profile in vivo, (2) enhanced drug absorption, (3) site-directed drug distribution, (4) a modified drug metabolism pattern, (5) prolonged drug residence time in body (e.g., in blood circulation), and (6) delayed and/or decreased renal excretion of the drug. Accordingly, the purpose of the current review is to present an insightful summary of pharmacokinetic analyses of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems along with a critical review of recent findings.