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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
IF: 2.9 5-Year IF: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v28.i4.10
pages 293-356

Possible Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in the Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

Sahil Aggarwal
Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga 142 001 (PB), India
Swati Gupta
Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga 142 001 (PB), India; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida Health, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA
Manish K. Gupta
Laboratory for Drug Design and Synthesis, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga 142 001 (PB), India
R. S. R. Murthy
Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga 142 001 (PB), India
Suresh P. Vyas
Drug Delivery Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H. S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar, M. P., India, 470003


Pancreatic cancer is considered an 'orphan' cancer because of its relative low incidence. Unfortunately, even with early diagnosis, mortality rates are high and it ranks eighth in the worldwide ranking of deaths due to cancer. The administration of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of advanced disease has failed, and current research focuses on the understanding of molecular pathways in order to investigate the role of targeted therapy. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways of various growth factors, among which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role. Growth factor receptors and their ligands not only regulate normal cell processes, but have also been identified as key regulators of human cancer formation. EGFR has been found to be expressed and altered in pancreatic cancer and clearly plays a significant role in tumor development and progression, including cell proliferation, regulation of apoptotic cell death, angiogenesis, and metastatic spread. The amplitude and kinetics of growth factor signaling are determined mainly by a highly regulated endocytic process that sorts and directs activated receptors to degradation in lysosomes. Therefore, EGFR is a legitimate therapeutic target. The aim of this review is to outline the endocytic escape of EGFRs in cancer with special attention towards recent advances in various approaches adopted for EGFR targeting.

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