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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

Impact factor: 3.040

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v29.i1.10
pages 1-63

Scaffold: A Novel Carrier for Cell and Drug Delivery

Tarun Garg
Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), India 09501223252(M)
Onkar Singh
Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), India 09501223252(M)
Saahil Arora
Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), India 09501223252(M)
R. S. R. Murthy
Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutics, I.S.F. College of Pharmacy, Moga 142 001 (PB), India

ABSTRACT

Scaffolds are implants or injects, which are used to deliver cells, drugs, and genes into the body. Different forms of polymeric scaffolds for cell/drug delivery are available: (1) a typical three-dimensional porous matrix, (2) a nanofibrous matrix, (3) a thermosensitive sol-gel transition hydrogel, and (4) a porous microsphere. A scaffold provides a suitable substrate for cell attachment, cell proliferation, differentiated function, and cell migration. Scaffold matrices can be used to achieve drug delivery with high loading and efficiency to specific sites. Biomaterials used for fabrication of scaffold may be natural polymers such as alginate, proteins, collagens, gelatin, fibrins, and albumin, or synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol and polyglycolide. Bioceramics such as hydroxyapatites and tricalcium phosphates also are used. Techniques used for fabrication of a scaffold include particulate leaching, freeze-drying, supercritical fluid technology, thermally induced phase separation, rapid prototyping, powder compaction, sol-gel, and melt moulding. These techniques allow the preparation of porous structures with regular porosity. Scaffold are used successfully in various fields of tissue engineering such as bone formation, periodontal regeneration, repair of nasal and auricular malformations, cartilage development, as artificial corneas, as heart valves, in tendon repair ,in ligament replacement, and in tumors. They also are used in joint pain inflammation, diabetes, heart disease, osteochondrogenesis, and wound dressings. Their application of late has extended to delivery of drugs and genetic materials, including plasmid DNA, at a controlled rate over a long period of time. In addition, the incorporation of drugs (i.e., inflammatory inhibitors and/or antibiotics) into scaffolds may be used to prevent infection after surgery and other disease for longer duration. Scaffold also can be used to provide adequate signals (e.g., through the use of adhesion peptides and growth factors) to the cells, to induce and maintain them in their desired differentiation stage, and to maintain their survival and growth. The present review gives a detailed account of the need for the development of scaffolds along with the materials used and techniques adopted to manufacture scaffolds for tissue engineering and for prolonged drug delivery.