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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

Impact factor: 3.040

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v19.i45.40
64 pages

Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems: Recent Developments and Prospects

H. M. Courrier
Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique et Nutritionnelle, Biodisponibilite Tissulaire et Cellulaire, Universite Louis Pasteur, France and Chimie des Systemes Associatifs, Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg, France
N. Butz
Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique et Nutritionnelle, Biodisponibilite Tissulaire et Cellulaire, Universite Louis Pasteur, France
Th. F. Vandamme
Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique et Nutritionnelle, Biodisponibilite Tissulaire et Cellulaire and Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Louis Pasteur, France

ABSTRACT

Targeting drug delivery into the lungs has become one of the most important aspects of systemic or local drug delivery systems. Consequently, in the last few years, techniques and new drug delivery devices intended to deliver drugs into the lungs have been widely developed. Currently, the main drug targeting regimens include direct application of a drug into the lungs, mostly by inhalation therapy using either pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) or dry powder inhalers (DPI). Intratracheal administration is commonly used as a first approach in lung drug delivery in vivo. To convey a sufficient dose of drug to the lungs, suitable drug arriers are required. These can be either solid, liquid, or gaseous excipients. Liposomes, nano- and microparticles, cyclodextrins, microemulsions, micelles, suspensions, or solutions are all examples of this type of pharmaceutical carrier that have been successfully used to target drugs into the lungs. The use of microreservoir-type systems offers clear advantages, such as high loading capacity and the possibility of controlling size and permeability, and thus of controlling the release kinetics of the drugs from the carrier systems. These systems make it possible to use relatively small numbers of vector molecules to deliver substantial amounts of a drug to the target. This review discusses the drug carriers administered or intended to be administered into the lungs. The transition to CFC-free inhalers and drug delivery systems formulated with new propellants are also discussed. Finally, in addition to the various advances made in the field of pulmonary-route administration, we describe new systems based on per. uorooctyl bromide, which guarantee oxygen delivery in the event of respiratory distress and drug delivery into the lungs.