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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

Impact factor: 5.367

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2015011645
pages 389-439

Nanotechnology-Based Photodynamic Therapy: Concepts, Advances, and Perspectives

Tarun Garg
Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India
Nitin K. Jain
Scientist-D, Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi, India
Goutam Rath
Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India; Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, Punjab, India
Amit Kumar Goyal
Department of Pharmaceutics, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga (Punjab), India; Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, Punjab, India

ABSTRACT

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a photoactive process that uses the combination of photosensitizers (PSs) and specific wavelengths of light for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases. PDT received increased attention after regulatory approval of several photosensitizing drugs and light applicators worldwide. With the advent of newer PSs, the role of PDT in the treatment of cancer and other diseases has been revolutionized. In addition, various targeting strategies developed for site-specific delivery of PSs will be helpful for avoiding phototoxicity to normal tissues. Receptor-mediated targeted PDT approaches using nanocarriers offer the opportunity of enhancing photodynamic efficiency by directly targeting diseased cells and tissues. At present, clinical application of PDT is well established in medicine and surgery. Successfully used in dermatology, urology, gastroenterology, and neurosurgery, PDT has also seen much progress in basic sciences and clinical photodynamics in recent years. Currently, the use of PDT is just beginning, and more research must be performed to prove its therapeutic efficacy. However, nontoxic compounds involved in PDT provide a certain hope that it will evolve to be an effective mechanism for combating chronic diseases.