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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
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ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v27.i3.20
pages 237-278

Gemini Amphiphiles: A Novel Class of Nonviral Gene Delivery Vectors

Mukesh Kumar
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara, Gujarat
Kaustubh Jinturkar
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara, Gujarat
M.R. Yadav
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara, Gujarat
Ambikanandan Misra
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Post Box No. 51, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001 Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT

A number of carriers have been developed for the delivery of genes, but the search for a clinically successful ideal carrier is ongoing. Nonviral carriers, especially cationic liposomes, were developed to resolve issues related to the immunogenicity and oncogenicity of viral carriers. Many synthetic cationic amphiphiles have been synthesized and structurally modified to incorporate genes into vesicular carriers to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and to reduce carrier toxicity. Of these carriers, gemini amphiphiles have demonstrated the suitable physiochemical properties needed for promising and novel gene carriers. Moreover, three basic parts (head, spacer, and chain) in the structure of gemini amphiphiles provide ample opportunities to tailor them according to the needs of specific gene delivery. Initial studies have demonstrated the superiority of gemini amphiphiles in gene delivery efficiency over currently used carriers for gene delivery. This article critically reviews these studies and provides a balanced view to fellow scientists to carry out their efforts in filling in the technological gaps.


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