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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
IF: 2.9 5-Year IF: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.818 CiteScore™: 4.6

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

Volume 37, 2020 Volume 36, 2019 Volume 35, 2018 Volume 34, 2017 Volume 33, 2016 Volume 32, 2015 Volume 31, 2014 Volume 30, 2013 Volume 29, 2012 Volume 28, 2011 Volume 27, 2010 Volume 26, 2009 Volume 25, 2008 Volume 24, 2007 Volume 23, 2006 Volume 22, 2005 Volume 21, 2004 Volume 20, 2003 Volume 19, 2002 Volume 18, 2001 Volume 17, 2000 Volume 16, 1999 Volume 15, 1998 Volume 14, 1997 Volume 13, 1996 Volume 12, 1995

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2020034470
pages 591-611

Microformulations and Nanoformulations of Doxorubicin for Improvement of Its Therapeutic Efficiency

Mehran Alavi
Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Iran
Ali Nokhodchi
Pharmaceutics Research Lab, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Sussex, UK; Drug Applied Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Non-selectivity and dose-dependent side effects of doxorubicin (DOX), particularly cardio-toxicology as well as multidrug resistance in various tumor cells, have increased the demand for novel formulations with suitable efficiency and safety. Microformulations and nanoformulations have been shown to have satisfactory responses compared with that of conventional formulations. In this review, recent advances alongside the advantages and disadvantages of microformulations and nanoformulations are discussed. Doxil and Caelyx (PEGylated forms) as well as Myocet (non-PEGylated form) are presented as approved liposomal forms by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to increase blood circulation half-life of DOX. Liposomes, micelles, hydrogels, lipid nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric NPs, polymersomes, metal/metal oxide NPs, mesoporous silica NPs, carbon-based NPs, and quantum dots are all major carriers for DOX and discussed accordingly. Considering all extracellular and intracellular conditions of cancer cells is an indispensable affair to obtain promising DOX carriers. Lack of a comprehensive related to drug-resistance cancer cells particularly in metastasis stages is an important hindrance to get acceptable results. Understanding of the drug resistance mechanisms in cancers cells particularly, in metastasis stages, is a critical factor to prepare efficient formulations.


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