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Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis
SJR: 0.946 SNIP: 0.503 CiteScore™: 2

ISSN Print: 0893-9675
ISSN Online: 2162-6448

Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevOncog.2014011987
pages 455-468

Survey of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) in Multiple Cancer Types

Kelly Lamiman
Department of Urology and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Jill M. Keller
Department of Urology and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Atsushi Mizokami
Department of Integrative Cancer Therapy and Urology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
Jian Zhang
Center for Translational Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China
Evan T. Keller
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr., Room 5308 CCGCB, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA; Center for Translational Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

ABSTRACT

Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), an inhibitor of several signaling pathways, has been shown to have metastasis suppressor gene activity and promote apoptosis. While first identified in prostate cancer, RKIP's anti-metastasis properties have now been demonstrated in multiple tumor types. Furthermore, loss of RKIP expression is observed in many cancers as they progress. In this review, we provide a survey of the many tumor types in which RKIP function or expression has been evaluated. Particular attention is focused on the expression of RKIP in clinical tissues and its prognostic significance. A PubMed search through May 2014 identified 56 publications detailing RKIP expression in clinical cancer tissues. The majority of studies revealed that loss of RKIP expression has prognostic value for overall survival, disease free survival, and presence of metastasis for most solid tumor cancers; whereas, RKIP expression correlated with tumor grade or stage in approximately only 50% of the publications. In summary, RKIP loss is a frequent occurrence in many solid tumor cancers and may serve as a viable prognostic biomarker.


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