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Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis
SJR: 0.946 SNIP: 0.503 CiteScore™: 2

ISSN Print: 0893-9675
ISSN Online: 2162-6448

Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017020964
pages 439-450

Epigenetic Modifications and Modulators in Prostate Cancer

Alessia Cimadamore
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
Silvia Gasparrini
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
Marina Scarpelli
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
Andrea Doria
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
Roberta Mazzucchelli
Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy
Francesco Massari
Division of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy
Liang Cheng
Departments of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA; Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, USA
Antonio Lopez-Beltran
Department of Pathology and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cordoba, Spain and Champalimaud Clinical Center, Lisbon, Portugal
Rodolfo Montironi
Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona) and United Hospitals Ancona, Italy

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in men. Its clinical behavior ranges from indolent to aggressive. The clinical and morphological methods and features currently adopted show a low predictive value concerning the definition of its level of aggressiveness. Investigations have been led to understand its complex genomic landscape to improve diagnosis and prognosis as well as to define the potential role of new therapeutic targets. Epigenetic changes, including modifications in DNA methylation and histone acetylation, can contribute to the clinical behavior of PCa. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as potential biomarkers in the definition of PCa. The reversibility of epigenetic modifications opens the door to a potential perspective in the development of epigenetics modulators. The scope of this contribution is to review the main epigenetic modifications identified in PCa, including research on epigenetic modifiers and modulators.