Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
Journal of Porous Media
IF: 1.49 5-Year IF: 1.159 SJR: 0.43 SNIP: 0.671 CiteScore™: 1.58

ISSN Print: 1091-028X
ISSN Online: 1934-0508

Volume 23, 2020 Volume 22, 2019 Volume 21, 2018 Volume 20, 2017 Volume 19, 2016 Volume 18, 2015 Volume 17, 2014 Volume 16, 2013 Volume 15, 2012 Volume 14, 2011 Volume 13, 2010 Volume 12, 2009 Volume 11, 2008 Volume 10, 2007 Volume 9, 2006 Volume 8, 2005 Volume 7, 2004 Volume 6, 2003 Volume 5, 2002 Volume 4, 2001 Volume 3, 2000 Volume 2, 1999 Volume 1, 1998

Journal of Porous Media

DOI: 10.1615/JPorMedia.2019025108
pages 1027-1041


Luqman K. Abidoye
Chemical Engineering Department, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, United Kingdom; Department of Civil Engineering, Osun State University, PMB 4494, Osogbo, Nigeria
Diganta B. Das
Chemical Engineering Department, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, United Kingdom


The possibility of leakage of CO2 from a geological storage reservoir is of serious concern to stakeholders. In this work, high–pressure-temperature laboratory experiments were performed to demonstrate the application of a silicone membrane-sensor system in the monitoring of subsurface gases, especially in the leakage scenario. Mass permeation, membrane resistance to gas permeation, and the gas flux across the membrane are reported for two gases, namely, CO2 and N2. Mass permeation of CO2 through the membrane was more than ten times higher than that of N2, under similar conditions. It was also found to increase with the geological depths. The gas flux remains higher for CO2 as compared to N2. From the results, a simple criterion for distinguishing the presence of the different gases at various geological depths was formulated based on the rate of permeation of gas through the membrane. Results and techniques in this work can be employed in the detection/monitoring of subsurface gas transport, especially in geological carbon sequestration.


  1. Abidoye, L.K. and Bello, A.A., Simple Dielectric Mixing Model in the Monitoring of CO2 Leakage from Geological Storage Aquifer, Geophys. J. Int., vol. 208, no. 3, pp. 1787-1795, 2017.

  2. Abidoye, L.K. and Das, D.B., pH, Geoelectrical and Membrane Flux Parameters for the Monitoring of Water-Saturated Silicate and Carbonate Porous Media Contaminated by CO2, Chem. Eng. J., vol. 262, pp. 1208-1217, 2015.

  3. Abidoye, L.K., Das, D.B., and Khudaida, K., Geological Carbon Sequestration in the Context of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: AReview, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1105-1147,2014.

  4. Al-Garni, M.T. and Al-Anazi, B.D., Investigation of Wettability Effects on Capillary Pressure, and Irreducible Saturation for Saudi Crude Oils, Using Rock Centrifuge, Oil Gas Bus., vol. 2008, no. 2, 2008.

  5. Ampomah, W., Balch, R., Grigg, R.B., Cather, M., Gragg, E., Will, R.A., White, M., Moodie, N., and Dai, Z., Performance Assessment of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery and Storage in the Morrow Reservoir, Geomech. Geophys. Geo-Energy Geo-Resour, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 245-263,2017.

  6. Bear, J., Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media, North Chelmsford, MA: Courier Corporation, 2013.

  7. Bednarek, A., Szklarek, S., and Zalewski, M., Nitrogen Pollution Removal from Areas of Intensive Farming-Comparison of Various Denitrification Biotechnologies, Ecohydrol. Hydrobiol., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 132-141,2014.

  8. Berg, S. and Ott, H., Stability of CO2-Brine Immiscible Displacement, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 11, pp. 188-203, 2012.

  9. Best, M.G., Igneous andMetamorphic Petrology, Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2013.

  10. Bielinski, A., Kopp, A., Schutt, H., and Class, H., Monitoring of CO2 Plumes during Storage in Geological Formations Using Temperature Signals: Numerical Investigation, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 319-328,2008.

  11. Chandrappa, R., Gupta, S., and Kulshrestha, U.C., Coping with Climate Change: Principles and Asian Context, Berlin: Springer, 2011.

  12. Cheng, J. and Luo, Y., Modeling Atmosphere Composition and Determining Explosibility in a Sealed Coal Mine Volume, Archives Mining Sci, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 25-40, 2014.

  13. Charpentier, F., Bureau, B., Troles, J., Boussard-Pledel, C., Michel-Le Pierres, K., Smektala, F., and Adam, J.-L., Infrared Monitoring of Underground CO2 Storage Using Chalcogenide Glass Fibers, Optical Mater., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 496-500, 2009.

  14. Chiquet, P., Broseta, D., and Thibeau, S., Wettability Alteration of Caprock Minerals by Carbon Dioxide, Geofluids, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 112-122, May 2007.

  15. Das, D.B., Gill, B.S., Abidoye, L.K., and Khudaida, K.J., A Numerical Study of Dynamic Capillary Pressure Effect for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Water Flow in Porous Domain, AIChEJ, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 4266-4278, 2014.

  16. De Bo, I., Investigation of the Permeability and Selectivity of Gases and Volatile Organic Compounds for Polydimethylsiloxane Membranes, J. Membrane Sci., vol. 215, nos. 1-2, pp. 303-319, Apr. 2003.

  17. Egli, S., Ruf, A., and Buck, A., Gastrennung Mittels Membranen. Ein Uberblick, Swiss Chem., vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 89-122, 1984.

  18. Espinoza, D.N., Kim, S.H., and Santamarina, J.C., CO2 Geological Storage-Geotechnical Implications, KSCEJ. Civil Eng., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 707-719,2011.

  19. Gasda, S.E., Nordbotten, J.M., and Celia, M.A., Vertical Equilibrium with Sub-Scale Analytical Methods for Geological CO2 Sequestration, Comput. Geosci., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 469-481, 2009.

  20. Hosseini, S.A., Lashgari, H., Choi, J.W., Nicot, J.-P., Lu, J., and Hovorka, S.D., Static and Dynamic Reservoir Modeling for Geological CO2 Sequestration at Cranfield, Mississippi, U.S.A., Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 18, pp. 449-462, Oct. 2013.

  21. Itaoka, K., Saito, A., and Akai, M., Public Acceptance of CO2 Capture and Storage Technology: A Survey of Public Opinion to Explore Influential Factors, in Proc. of the 7th Int. Conf. on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Vancouver, Canada, September 5-9,2004.

  22. Klapper, R., Widdicombe, S., and Reitz, A., ECO2 Briefing Paper No. 2: Potential Impacts of CO2 Leakage from Sub-Surface Storage on Seabed Biology, 2013.

  23. Kesson, J. The Diffusion of Gases through a Silicon Rubber Membrane and Its Application to an In-Line Carbonation Meter, MBAA Tech. Quarter, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 143-146, 1984.

  24. Krause, R.M., Carley, S.R., Warren, D.C., Rupp, J.A., and Graham, J.D., Not in (or Under) My Backyard: Geographic Proximity and Public Acceptance of Carbon Capture and Storage Facilities, Risk Anal., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 529-540, 2014.

  25. Lamert, H., Geistlinger, H., Werban, U., Schutze, C., Peter, A., Hornbruch, G., Schulz, A., Pohlert, M., Kalia, S., Beyer, M., et al., Feasibility of Geoelectrical Monitoring and Multiphase Modeling for Process Understanding of Gaseous CO2 Injection into a Shallow Aquifer, Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 447-462,2012.

  26. Lazik, D., Ebert, S., Leuthold, M., Hagenau, J., and Geistlinger, H., Membrane based Measurement Technology for In Situ Monitoring of Gases in Soil, Sensors, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 756-767,2009.

  27. Merkel, T.C., Gupta, R.P., Turk, B.S., and Freeman, B.D., Mixed-Gas Permeation of Syngas Components in Poly (dimethylsiloxane) and Poly (1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) at Elevated Temperatures, J. Membrane Sci., vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 85-94, 2001.

  28. Nakatsuka, Y., Xue, Z., Garcia, H., and Matsuoka, T., Experimental Study on CO2 Monitoring and Quantification of Stored CO2 in Saline Formations Using Resistivity Measurements, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 209-216,2010.

  29. Nordbotten, J.M., Celia, M.A., and Bachu, S., Analytical Solutions for Leakage Rates through Abandoned Wells, Water Resour. Res., vol. 40, no. 4, 2004. DOI: 10.1029/2003WR002997.

  30. Ozturk, B. and Hughes, R., Evaluation of Mass Transfer Characteristics of Non-Porous and Microporous Membrane Contactors for the Removal of CO2, Chem. Eng. J., vols. 195-196, pp. 122-131,2012.

  31. Praveen, J.H.A., Mason, L.W., and Way, J.D., Characterization of Silicon Rubber Membrane Materials at Low Temperature and Low Pressure Conditions, J. Membrane Sci., vol. 272, pp. 125-136, 2006.

  32. Rathnaweera, T.D., Ranjith, P.G., and Perera, M.S.A., Experimental Investigation of Geochemical and Mineralogical Effects of CO2 Sequestration on Flow Characteristics of Reservoir Rock in Deep Saline Aquifers, Sci. Rep., vol. 6, p. 19362, 2016.

  33. Shahrabi, S.S., Mortaheb, H.R., Barzin, J., and Ehsani, M.R., Pervaporative Performance of a PDMS/Blended PES Composite Membrane for Removal of Toluene from Water, Desalination, vol. 287, pp. 281-289, Feb. 2012.

  34. Saraji, S., Goual, L., Piri, M., and Plancher, H., Wettability of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems: Simultaneous Measurement of Contact Angle and Interfacial Tension at Reservoir Conditions, Langmuir: ACS J. Surfaces Colloids, vol. 29, no. 23, pp. 6856-6866,2013.

  35. Saripalli, K.P., Mcgrail, B.P., and White, M.D., Modeling the Sequestration of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations, in First National Conf. on Carbon Sequestration, no. 509, pp. 1-19, 2001.

  36. Spangler, L.H., Dobeck, L.M. Repasky, K.S. Nehrir, A.R. Humphries, S.D., Barr, J.L., Keith, C.J., Shaw, J.A., Rouse, J.H., and Cunningham, A.B., A Shallow Subsurface Controlled Release Facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for Testing near Surface CO2 Detection Techniques and Transport Models, Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 227-239, 2010.

  37. Staude, E., Membranen undMembranprozesse, Weinheim, Germany: VCH, 1992.

  38. TakuIde, S., Jessen, K., and Orr Jr., F.M., Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers: Effects of Gravity, Viscous, and Capillary Forces on Amount and Timing of Trapping, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 481-491, 2007.

  39. Tao, Q. and Bryant, S.L., Well Permeability Estimation and CO2 Leakage Rates, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 22, pp. 77-87, 2014.

  40. Varner, S.E., deJuan Jr., E., Shelley, T., Barnes, A.C., and Humayun, M., Devices for Intraocular Drug Delivery. U.S. Patent 6,719,750, filed June 22, 2001, and issued April 13, 2004.

  41. Vilamajo, E., Queralt, P., Ledo, J., and Marcuello, A., Feasibility of Monitoring the Hontomin (Burgos, Spain) CO2 Storage Site Using a Deep EM Source, Surveys Geophys., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 441-461, 2013.

  42. Ward, S.E., Ostle, N.J., Oakley, S., Quirk, H., Henrys, P.A., and Bardgett, R.D., Warming Effects on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Peatlands are Modulated by Vegetation Composition, Ecology Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1285-1293,2013.

  43. Xiao, T., Dai, Z., McPherson, B., Viswanathan, H., and Jia, W., Reactive Transport Modeling of Arsenic Mobilization in Shallow Groundwater: Impacts of CO2 and Brine Leakage, Geomech. Geophys. Geo-Energy Geo-Resour., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 339-350, 2017.

  44. Zhang, H. and Cloud, A., The Permeability Characteristics of Silicone Rubber, in Proc. of the 2006 SAMPE Fall Technical Conf. Global Advances in Materials and Process Engineering, Dallas, TX, 2006.

  45. Zimmer, M., Erzinger, J., and Kujawa, C., The Gas Membrane Sensor (GMS): A New Method for Gas Measurements in Deep Boreholes Applied at the CO2SINK Site, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 995-1001, 2011.