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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.243 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v36.i2-3.30
pages 127-181

Multisegmental Foot Modeling: A Review

Leah Rankine
Medical College of Wisconsin
Jason T Long
Marquette University, Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Engineering Center (OREC), 735 N. 17th Street, Suite 105, Milwaukee, WI 53233
Karl Canseco
Dept. of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Engineering Center (OREC), Marquette University/Medical College of Wisconsin
Gerald F. Harris
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Engineering Center, Marquette University/Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Director of Orthopaedic Research, Medical College of Wisconsin


Over the past two decades, a number of multisegmental foot models have been developed in order to characterize foot kinematics. This paper reviews methods of multisegmental foot modeling, technical elements of the models, select clinical applications of the models, and future directions in this area of research. Technical areas discussed include angular derotation mechanisms and capture technology. Models discussed address two-, three-, four-, five-, and nine-segment approaches. Additional models which address foot segments using other definitions, are also discussed. Clinical applications of multisegmental foot models include pathologic gait characterization in rheumatoid arthritis, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and hallux rigidus. Areas of continued development, including soft tissue artifact and nomenclature, are also discussed.