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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2018025232
pages 185-200

Advances in Powered Ankle−Foot Prostheses

Erik Chumacero
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Abdullah Al Masud
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Doruk Isik
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas
Chwan-Li Shen
School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas
Ming-Chien Chyu
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas; School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas; Graduate Healthcare Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

ABSTRACT

We present a review of recent developments in powered ankle-foot prostheses (PAFPs), with emphasis on actuation, high- and low-level control strategies, and pneumatic, hydraulic, and electromechanical actuators. A high-level control strategy based on finite-state machines, combined with low-level control that drives the ankle torque, is the most common control strategy. On the other hand, brushless direct-current motors along with an energy storage and release mechanism are commonly used to reduce the overall size of the actuators and increase PAFP autonomy. Most designs have been evaluated experimentally, showing acceptable results in walking velocity and gait symmetry. Future research must focus on reducing weight, increasing energy efficiency, improving gait phase classification and/or intent of motion-prediction algorithms, updating low-level control of torque and position, and developing the ability of the patient to walk on sloped surfaces and negotiate stairs.