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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2018027342
pages 429-468

Dental Tissue−Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Applications in Tissue Engineering

Jay R. Dave
Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India
Geetanjali B. Tomar
Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India

ABSTRACT

In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from dental tissue have gained in popularity for tissue-engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The highly proliferative and self-renewing population of dental stem cells has the neural crest as their origin. This expands their applicability for regeneration of tissues from both ectochyme and mesenchymal origin. Ease of tissue harvest, high initial yield of cells, low population-doubling time, plasticity, multipotential capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties make them a suitable candidate for various therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, dental tissue–derived cells can be transformed into induced pluripotent stem cells to customize cell-based regenerative approaches. However, there is currently a lack of exhaustive comparative profiles of these dental tissues and their regenerative applications. We thereby present a comprehensive compilation of morphofunctional analyses and tissue-engineering applications of MSCs that are derived from tooth germ, exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament, gingiva, dental pulp, alveolar bone, dental follicle, and apical papilla. Immunoregulatory properties of dental stem cells provide potential for both autologous and allogenic tissue-engineering approaches. In vitro and animal studies show promise for using dental stem cells in regenerative medicine. Eventually, the orchestration of clinical trials will require systematic monitoring of spontaneous in vitro transformations and complications associated with graft versus host response as well as a thorough understanding of underlying anabolic mechanisms.