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Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer

Impact factor: 0.562

ISSN Print: 1065-5131
ISSN Online: 1563-5074

Journal of Enhanced Heat Transfer

DOI: 10.1615/JEnhHeatTransf.v2.i1-2.110
pages 95-103

Thermal Performance of a Passive Immersion-Cooling Multichip Module

David Kitching
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A.
Tetsuo Ogata
Computer Development Department 2, Hitachi Ltd. Kanagawa Works Hadano-shi, Kanagawa, Japan
Avram Bar-Cohen
Laboratory of the Thermal Management of Electronics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455; and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Microsystems Technology Office, University of Maryland, College Park, MD


A Passive Immersion-Cooling Multichip Module (PIMM) for the direct liquid cooling of microelectronic components with dielectric liquids was configured to meet expected Workstation thermal management needs. A laboratory module, internally-filled with fluorinert and containing 9 simulated-chip heaters, was tested for different orientations, fin lengths, and cold-plate temperatures as well as for the effect of dissolved noncondensables. The 80 × 80 × 27 mm module had a "submerged condenser" finned with an array of square pin fins and was found to have a peak heat dissipation capacity of 290 W with a cold-plate temperature of 20 °C. The thermofluid phenomena encountered in the operation of the PIMM and the best available relations for the heat transport from the chips to liquid and from liquid to "submerged condenser" surface are presented.