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Atomization and Sprays
IF: 1.189 5-Year IF: 1.596 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 1.6

ISSN Print: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2016013485
pages 1083-1110


Meng Wang
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 Canada
Mohsen Broumand
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 Canada
Madjid Birouk
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 5V6 Canada


Liquid jet penetration/trajectory in a gaseous subsonic cross-flow has been studied extensively. Numerous correlations were proposed to predict the penetration of a liquid jet in a gaseous cross-flow. However, there are considerable inconsistencies between these correlations that negatively affect the reliability of this wealth of data. Therefore the objective of the present study was to address this issue. To do so, published correlations were grouped/categorized based on jet liquid type and ambient conditions of cross-flow. This resulted in four groups: (1) water jet in a cross-flow at room conditions, (2) liquid (excluding water) jet in a cross-flow at room conditions; (3) liquid (including water) jet in a cross-flow at room temperature and elevated pressure (i.e., P = 1−20 bar), and (4) liquid (including water) jet in a cross-flow at elevated pressure and temperature conditions (i.e., P = 1−20 bar and T = 280−650 K). A thorough analysis of published correlations in each group was carried out based on the most influencing factors/parameters. For instance, gas (cross-flow) Weber number has a significant effect on a liquid jet trajectory at low We, whereas it has a negligible effect at high We. A liquid jet with high viscosity and surface tension exhibited a trajectory closer to the wall. An increase in cross-flow temperature and pressure yielded a decrease in jet penetration height at a fixed momentum flux ratio and Weber number. On the basis of these analyses, a universal correlation form was developed to predict the penetration (or trajectory) of a liquid jet in a subsonic cross-flow. Finally, it should be noted that only jets issuing from injectors/nozzles with rounded exit circular orifices were considered in this study.