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Atomization and Sprays

Impact factor: 1.235

ISSN Print: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2013006309
pages 1011-1052


Alan L. Kastengren
Energy Systems Division, X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 USA
F. Zak Tilocco
Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 USA
Christopher F. Powell
Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 USA
Julien Manin
Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969, MS9053, Livermore, CA 94551, USA
Lyle M. Pickett
Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550, USA
Raul Payri
Universitat Politècnica de València
Tim Bazyn
Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, Illinois 61629, USA


Despite the importance of sprays to engine combustion, understanding has been hampered by the sensitivity of spray behavior to unknown nozzle geometry effects. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) collaboration has focused on overcoming this impediment to spray research by focusing on a set of nominally identical diesel injectors. Detailed measurements of the nozzle geometry for the four ECN Spray A injectors (90 µm diameter, axial single-hole nozzles) have been performed using x-ray tomography, x-ray phase-contrast imaging, silicone molding, and optical microscopy. Measurements of the needle motions (axial and lateral) and hydraulic performance of the nozzles have also been performed. Measurements of the nozzle geometry show that all of the nozzle holes are offset from the axis of the needle and sac. This offset creates an asymmetry in the inlet condition of the nozzle hole, which varies from nozzle to nozzle. The nozzle profile deviates significantly from the nominal specification, with an abrupt convergence of the nozzle holes near the nozzle exit seen in all of the injectors. Nozzle diameter measurements show a smaller diameter than the nominal specification, with significant differences between the injectors. Needle lift measurements show oscillatory behavior in both the axial and lateral motions of the needle. The hydraulic characterization of the nozzles demonstrates the impact of internal geometry (outlet diameter) on momentum and mass flow rate.