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Atomization and Sprays
IF: 1.262 5-Year IF: 1.518 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 1.6

ISSN Print: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.v19.i8.10
pages 701-726


Maria Spathopoulou
City University London
Manolis Gavaises
School of Mathematics, Computer Science, and Engineering, City University London, Northampton Square, EC1V 0HB London, United Kingdom
Andreas P. Theodorakakos
Fluid Research Co, 49 Laskareos Str, 114 72, Athens
Hiromichi Yanagihara
Toyota Motor Europe, Brussels


Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements and model predictions of the liquid film thickness formed on a flat surface during impingement of fuel sprays formed from low-pressure gasoline injectors are reported. The obtained measurements guide the development of a mathematical model employed to numerically predict the formation and transport of the wall liquid film. The governing film flow equations are based on the continuous Eulerian approach and are formulated according to the thin-film boundary layer framework. Extended parametric studies investigate the sensitivity of the model to different type and order of spatial and temporal discretization schemes. Governing parameters for the spray representation and wall impingement process are addressed, and their influence upon the behavior of the fuel film development is investigated. Droplet impact pressure is identified as the main driving force of the film transport process, as revealed through an order-of-magnitude analysis on the terms considered in momentum conservation equations. Model parameters defining the characteristics of the incident fuel droplets are additionally proved influential. Predictions under different injection conditions are compared against the temporal evolution of liquid film thickness at various locations over the impact wall. The numerical results capture the wavy variation of film thickness during the fuel film formation and transport along the solid surface from the time of impingement until equilibrium conditions have been reached. The latter is achieved at the final stages of mass exchange with the impinging jet, and it is well reproduced, although a tendency to under predict the peak thickness values during the initial and more transient stages of the formation process is revealed.