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Atomization and Sprays
IF: 1.189 5-Year IF: 1.596 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 1.6

ISSN Print: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2011003586
pages 349-361


Suraj Deshpande
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Jian Gao
Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, USA; Propulsion Systems Research Lab., General Motors Global Research and Development, Warren, USA
Mario F. Trujillo
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University Ave., Madison,WI 53706, USA


A qualitative and quantitative study of a hollow cone spray exposed to a cross-flowing stream of air is presented, based on the conventional Lagrangian-Eulerian point parcel spray treatment. The flow solver employs the open source library of computational mechanics solvers of OpenFOAM. Globally, the spray can be categorized by a near- and far-field region, where the demarcation makes use of the magnitude of the individual droplet drag force. In the near field the vertical spray momentum largely dominates the gas flow momentum and forces it to bend downward. Within this near field we show that two conditions−weak crossflow and strong crossflow−can be identified, depending upon the strength of crossflow in relation to the induced air motion. While this is in agreement with Ghosh and Hunt (1998), we differ in the approach taken and the spray geometry studied. In the case of a weak crossflow, the spray severely deflects the crossflow streamlines, forcing the lee side streamlines to converge toward the center of the spray. In the case of a strong crossflow, the streamlines are deflected; nevertheless, they penetrate the spray. This has a significant impact on the topology of the spray structure, which has not been previously presented. In the far field the center streamline of the spray-induced air jet agrees extremely well with a single-phase jet trajectory. This behavior is shown to be independent of grid resolution and of atomization model.