Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
Atomization and Sprays
IF: 1.189 5-Year IF: 1.596 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 1.6

ISSN Print: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

Volume 28, 2018 Volume 27, 2017 Volume 26, 2016 Volume 25, 2015 Volume 24, 2014 Volume 23, 2013 Volume 22, 2012 Volume 21, 2011 Volume 20, 2010 Volume 19, 2009 Volume 18, 2008 Volume 17, 2007 Volume 16, 2006 Volume 15, 2005 Volume 14, 2004 Volume 13, 2003 Volume 12, 2002 Volume 11, 2001 Volume 10, 2000 Volume 9, 1999 Volume 8, 1998 Volume 7, 1997 Volume 6, 1996 Volume 5, 1995 Volume 4, 1994 Volume 3, 1993 Volume 2, 1992 Volume 1, 1991

Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2011004023
pages 467-481


Devendra Deshmukh
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India
R. V. Ravikrishna
Combustion & Spray Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India


The high-pressure spray characteristics of biofuels, specifically, Pongamia oil and its blends with diesel are studied for various gas pressures. Two single-hole solenoid injectors with nozzle diameters of 200 and 260 µm are used along with a high-pressure common-rail direct-injection system to inject fuel into a high-pressure spray visualization chamber. The spray structure is characterized using a high-speed laser-based shadowgraphy technique. The spray structure of Pongamia oil revealed the presence of an intact liquid core at low gas pressure. At high gas pressures, the spray atomization of the Pongamia oil showed marked improvement. The spray tip penetration of Pongamia oil and its blends with diesel is higher compared to that of diesel for all test conditions. The spray cone angle of Pongamia oil and 50% Pongamia oil blend with diesel is lower as compared to that of diesel. Both these observations are attributed to the presence of large droplets carrying higher momentum in oil and blend. The droplet size is measured at an injection pressure of 1000 bar and gas pressure of 30 bar at 25 mm below the nozzle tip using the particle/droplet image analysis (PDIA) method. The droplet size measurements have shown that the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) in the spray core of Pongamia oil is more than twice that of diesel. The spray tip penetration of the 20% blend of Pongamia with diesel (P20) is similar to that of diesel but the SMD is 50% higher. Based on experimental data, appropriate spray tip penetration correlation is proposed for the vegetable oil fuels such as Pongamia.