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Atomization and Sprays
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ISSN Print: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2011004023
pages 467-481

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON HIGH-PRESSURE SPRAY STRUCTURE OF BIOFUELS

Devendra Deshmukh
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India
R. V. Ravikrishna
Combustion & Spray Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India

ABSTRACT

The high-pressure spray characteristics of biofuels, specifically, Pongamia oil and its blends with diesel are studied for various gas pressures. Two single-hole solenoid injectors with nozzle diameters of 200 and 260 µm are used along with a high-pressure common-rail direct-injection system to inject fuel into a high-pressure spray visualization chamber. The spray structure is characterized using a high-speed laser-based shadowgraphy technique. The spray structure of Pongamia oil revealed the presence of an intact liquid core at low gas pressure. At high gas pressures, the spray atomization of the Pongamia oil showed marked improvement. The spray tip penetration of Pongamia oil and its blends with diesel is higher compared to that of diesel for all test conditions. The spray cone angle of Pongamia oil and 50% Pongamia oil blend with diesel is lower as compared to that of diesel. Both these observations are attributed to the presence of large droplets carrying higher momentum in oil and blend. The droplet size is measured at an injection pressure of 1000 bar and gas pressure of 30 bar at 25 mm below the nozzle tip using the particle/droplet image analysis (PDIA) method. The droplet size measurements have shown that the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) in the spray core of Pongamia oil is more than twice that of diesel. The spray tip penetration of the 20% blend of Pongamia with diesel (P20) is similar to that of diesel but the SMD is 50% higher. Based on experimental data, appropriate spray tip penetration correlation is proposed for the vegetable oil fuels such as Pongamia.